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Version: 0.14.1

SQL Queries

Hudi stores and organizes data on storage while providing different ways of querying, across a wide range of query engines. This page will show how to issue different queries and discuss any specific instructions for each query engine.

Spark SQL

The Spark quickstart provides a good overview of how to use Spark SQL to query Hudi tables. This section will go into more advanced configurations and functionalities.

Snapshot Query

Snapshot queries are the most common query type for Hudi tables. Spark SQL supports snapshot queries on both COPY_ON_WRITE and MERGE_ON_READ tables. Using session properties, you can specify various options around data skipping and indexing to optimize query performance, as shown below.

-- You can turn on any relevant options for data skipping and indexing. 
-- for e.g. the following turns on data skipping based on column stats
SET hoodie.enable.data.skipping=true;
SET hoodie.metadata.column.stats.enable=true;
SET hoodie.metadata.enable=true;
SELECT * FROM hudi_table
WHERE price > 1.0 and price < 10.0

-- Turn on use of record level index, to perform point queries.
SET hoodie.metadata.record.index.enable=true;
SELECT * FROM hudi_table
WHERE uuid = 'c8abbe79-8d89-47ea-b4ce-4d224bae5bfa'
Integration with Spark

Users are encouraged to migrate to Hudi versions > 0.12.x, for the best spark experience and discouraged from using any older approaches using path filters. We expect that native integration with Spark's optimized table readers along with Hudi's automatic table management will yield great performance benefits in those versions.

Time Travel Query

You can also query the table at a specific commit time using the AS OF syntax. This is useful for debugging and auditing purposes, as well as for machine learning pipelines where you want to train models on a specific point in time.

SELECT * FROM <table name> 
TIMESTAMP AS OF '<timestamp in yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS or yyyy-MM-dd or yyyyMMddHHmmssSSS>'
WHERE <filter conditions>

Change Data Capture

Change Data Capture (CDC) queries are useful when you want to obtain all changes to a Hudi table within a given time window, along with before/after images and change operation of the changed records. Similar to many relational database counterparts, Hudi provides flexible ways of controlling supplemental logging levels, to balance storage/logging costs by materializing more versus compute costs of computing the changes on the fly, using hoodie.table.cdc.supplemental.logging.mode configuration.

-- Supported through the hudi_table_changes TVF 
SELECT *
FROM hudi_table_changes(
<pathToTable | tableName>,
'cdc',
<'earliest' | <time to capture from>>
[, <time to capture to>]
)

Incremental Query

Incremental queries are useful when you want to obtain the latest values for all records that have changed after a given commit time. They help author incremental data pipelines with orders of magnitude efficiency over batch counterparts by only processing the changed records. Hudi users have realized large gains in query efficiency by using incremental queries in this fashion. Hudi supports incremental queries on both COPY_ON_WRITE and MERGE_ON_READ tables.

-- Supported through the hudi_table_changes TVF 
SELECT *
FROM hudi_table_changes(
<pathToTable | tableName>,
'latest_state',
<'earliest' | <time to capture from>>
[, <time to capture to>]
)
Incremental vs CDC Queries

Incremental queries offer even better query efficiency than even the CDC queries above, since they amortize the cost of compactions across your data lake. For e.g the table has received 10 million modifications across 1 million records over a time window, incremental queries can fetch the latest value for 1 million records using Hudi's record level metadata. On the other hand, the CDC queries will process 10 million records and useful in cases, where you want to see all changes in a given time window and not just the latest values.

Please refer to configurations section for the important configuration options.

Once the Flink Hudi tables have been registered to the Flink catalog, they can be queried using the Flink SQL. It supports all query types across both Hudi table types, relying on the custom Hudi input formats like Hive. Typically, notebook users and Flink SQL CLI users leverage flink sql for querying Hudi tables. Please add hudi-flink-bundle as described in the Flink Quickstart.

Snapshot Query

By default, Flink SQL will try to use its optimized native readers (for e.g. reading parquet files) instead of Hive SerDes. Additionally, partition pruning is applied by Flink if a partition predicate is specified in the filter. Filters push down may not be supported yet (please check Flink roadmap).

select * from hudi_table/*+ OPTIONS('metadata.enabled'='true', 'read.data.skipping.enabled'='false','hoodie.metadata.index.column.stats.enable'='true')*/;

Options

Option NameRequiredDefaultRemarks
metadata.enabledfalsefalseSet to true to enable
read.data.skipping.enabledfalsefalseWhether to enable data skipping for batch snapshot read, by default disabled
hoodie.metadata.index.column.stats.enablefalsefalseWhether to enable column statistics (max/min)
hoodie.metadata.index.column.stats.column.listfalseN/AColumns(separated by comma) to collect the column statistics

Streaming Query

By default, the hoodie table is read as batch, that is to read the latest snapshot data set and returns. Turns on the streaming read mode by setting option read.streaming.enabled as true. Sets up option read.start-commit to specify the read start offset, specifies the value as earliest if you want to consume all the history data set.

select * from hudi_table/*+ OPTIONS('read.streaming.enabled'='true', 'read.start-commit'='earliest')*/;

Options

Option NameRequiredDefaultRemarks
read.streaming.enabledfalsefalseSpecify true to read as streaming
read.start-commitfalsethe latest commitStart commit time in format 'yyyyMMddHHmmss', use earliest to consume from the start commit
read.streaming.skip_compactionfalsefalseWhether to skip compaction instants for streaming read, generally for two purpose: 1) Avoid consuming duplications from compaction instants created for created by Hudi versions < 0.11.0 or when hoodie.compaction.preserve.commit.metadata is disabled 2) When change log mode is enabled, to only consume change for right semantics.
clean.retain_commitsfalse10The max number of commits to retain before cleaning, when change log mode is enabled, tweaks this option to adjust the change log live time. For example, the default strategy keeps 50 minutes of change logs if the checkpoint interval is set up as 5 minutes.
note

Users are encouraged to use Hudi versions > 0.12.3, for the best experience and discouraged from using any older versions. Specifically, read.streaming.skip_compaction should only be enabled if the MOR table is compacted by Hudi with versions < 0.11.0. This is so as the hoodie.compaction.preserve.commit.metadata feature is only introduced in Hudi versions >=0.11.0. Older versions will overwrite the original commit time for each row with the compaction plan's instant time and cause row-level instant range checks to not work properly.

Incremental Query

There are 3 use cases for incremental query:

  1. Streaming query: specify the start commit with option read.start-commit;
  2. Batch query: specify the start commit with option read.start-commit and end commit with option read.end-commit, the interval is a closed one: both start commit and end commit are inclusive;
  3. Time Travel: consume as batch for an instant time, specify the read.end-commit is enough because the start commit is latest by default.
select * from hudi_table/*+ OPTIONS('read.start-commit'='earliest', 'read.end-commit'='20231122155636355')*/;

Options

Option NameRequiredDefaultRemarks
read.start-commitfalsethe latest commitSpecify earliest to consume from the start commit
read.end-commitfalsethe latest commit--

Catalog

A Hudi catalog can manage the tables created by Flink, table metadata is persisted to avoid redundant table creation. The catalog in hms mode will supplement the Hive syncing parameters automatically.

A SQL demo for Catalog SQL in hms mode:

CREATE CATALOG hoodie_catalog
WITH (
'type'='hudi',
'catalog.path' = '${catalog root path}', -- only valid if the table options has no explicit declaration of table path
'hive.conf.dir' = '${dir path where hive-site.xml is located}',
'mode'='hms' -- also support 'dfs' mode so that all the table metadata are stored with the filesystem
);

Options

Option NameRequiredDefaultRemarks
catalog.pathtrue--Default catalog root path, it is used to infer a full table path in format: ${catalog.path}/${db_name}/${table_name}
default-databasefalsedefaultDefault database name
hive.conf.dirfalse--Directory where hive-site.xml is located, only valid in hms mode
modefalsedfsSpecify as hms to keep the table metadata with Hive metastore
table.externalfalsefalseWhether to create external tables, only valid under hms mode

Hive

Hive has support for snapshot and incremental queries (with limitations) on Hudi tables.

In order for Hive to recognize Hudi tables and query correctly, the hudi-hadoop-mr-bundle-<hudi.version>.jar needs to be provided to Hive2Server aux jars path, as well as additionally, the bundle needs to be put on the hadoop/hive installation across the cluster. In addition to setup above, for beeline cli access, the hive.input.format variable needs to be set to the fully qualified path name of the inputformat org.apache.hudi.hadoop.HoodieParquetInputFormat. For Tez, additionally, the hive.tez.input.format needs to be set to org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.HiveInputFormat.

Then users should be able to issue snapshot queries against the table like any other Hive table.

Incremental Query

# set hive session properties for incremental querying like below
# type of query on the table
set hoodie.<table_name>.consume.mode=INCREMENTAL;
# Specify start timestamp to fetch first commit after this timestamp.
set hoodie.<table_name>.consume.start.timestamp=20180924064621;
# Max number of commits to consume from the start commit. Set this to -1 to get all commits after the starting commit.
set hoodie.<table_name>.consume.max.commits=3;

# usual hive query on hoodie table
select `_hoodie_commit_time`, col_1, col_2, col_4 from hudi_table where col_1 = 'XYZ' and `_hoodie_commit_time` > '20180924064621';
Hive incremental queries that are executed using Fetch task

Since Hive Fetch tasks invoke InputFormat.listStatus() per partition, metadata can be listed in every such listStatus() call. In order to avoid this, it might be useful to disable fetch tasks using the hive session property for incremental queries: set hive.fetch.task.conversion=none; This would ensure Map Reduce execution is chosen for a Hive query, which combines partitions (comma separated) and calls InputFormat.listStatus() only once with all those partitions.

AWS Athena

AWS Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in Amazon S3 using standard SQL. It supports querying Hudi tables using the Hive connector. Currently, it supports snapshot queries on COPY_ON_WRITE tables, and snapshot and read optimized queries on MERGE_ON_READ Hudi tables.

The most recent release of Athena that supports querying Hudi 0.14.0 tables has a bug that causes _ro query to return 0 records, and occasionally _rt the query to fail with class cast exception.

The issue is tracked in HUDI-7362 and is expected to be fixed in the next release.

Presto

Presto is a popular query engine for interactive query performance. Support for querying Hudi tables using PrestoDB is offered via two connectors - Hive connector and Hudi connector (Presto version 0.275 onwards). Both connectors currently support snapshot queries on COPY_ON_WRITE tables and snapshot and read optimized queries on MERGE_ON_READ Hudi tables.

Since Presto-Hudi integration has evolved over time, the installation instructions for PrestoDB would vary based on versions. Please check the below table for query types supported and installation instructions.

PrestoDB VersionInstallation descriptionQuery types supported
< 0.233Requires the hudi-presto-bundle jar to be placed into <presto_install>/plugin/hive-hadoop2/, across the installation.Snapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables.
> = 0.233No action needed. Hudi (0.5.1-incubating) is a compile time dependency.Snapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables.
> = 0.240No action needed. Hudi 0.5.3 version is a compile time dependency.Snapshot querying on both COW and MOR tables.
> = 0.268No action needed. Hudi 0.9.0 version is a compile time dependency.Snapshot querying on bootstrap tables.
> = 0.272No action needed. Hudi 0.10.1 version is a compile time dependency.File listing optimizations. Improved query performance.
> = 0.275No action needed. Hudi 0.11.0 version is a compile time dependency.All of the above. Native Hudi connector that is on par with Hive connector.
note

Incremental queries and point in time queries are not supported either through the Hive connector or Hudi connector. However, it is in our roadmap, and you can track the development under HUDI-3210.

To use the Hudi connector, please configure hudi catalog in /presto-server-0.2xxx/etc/catalog/hudi.properties as follows:

connector.name=hudi
hive.metastore.uri=thrift://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:9083
hive.config.resources=.../hadoop-2.x/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml,.../hadoop-2.x/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml

To learn more about the usage of Hudi connector, please read prestodb documentation.

Trino

Similar to PrestoDB, Trino allows querying Hudi tables via either the Hive connector or the native Hudi connector (introduced in version 398). For Trino version 411 or newer, the Hive connector redirects to the Hudi catalog for Hudi table reads. Ensure you configure the necessary settings for table redirection when using the Hive connector on these versions.

hive.hudi-catalog-name=hudi
Installation instructions

We recommend using hudi-trino-bundle version 0.12.2 or later for optimal query performance with Hive connector. Table below summarizes how the support for Hudi is achieved across different versions of Trino.

Trino VersionInstallation descriptionQuery types supported
< 398NA - can only use Hive connector to query Hudi tablesSame as that of Hive connector version < 406.
> = 398NA - no need to place bundle jars manually, as they are compile-time dependencySnapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables.
< 406hudi-trino-bundle jar to be placed into <trino_install>/plugin/hiveSnapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables.
> = 406hudi-trino-bundle jar to be placed into <trino_install>/plugin/hiveSnapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables. Redirection to Hudi catalog also supported.
> = 411NASnapshot querying on COW tables. Read optimized querying on MOR tables. Hudi tables can be only queried by table redirection.

For details on the Hudi connector, see the connector documentation. Both connectors offer 'Snapshot' queries for COW tables and 'Read Optimized' queries for MOR tables. Support for MOR table snapshot queries is anticipated shortly.

Impala

Impala (versions > 3.4) is able to query Hudi Copy-on-write tables as an EXTERNAL TABLES.

To create a Hudi read optimized table on Impala:

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE database.table_name
LIKE PARQUET '/path/to/load/xxx.parquet'
STORED AS HUDIPARQUET
LOCATION '/path/to/load';

Impala is able to take advantage of the partition pruning to improve the query performance, using traditional Hive style partitioning. To create a partitioned table, the folder should follow the naming convention like year=2020/month=1.

To create a partitioned Hudi table on Impala:

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE database.table_name
LIKE PARQUET '/path/to/load/xxx.parquet'
PARTITION BY (year int, month int, day int)
STORED AS HUDIPARQUET
LOCATION '/path/to/load';
ALTER TABLE database.table_name RECOVER PARTITIONS;

After Hudi made a new commit, refresh the Impala table to get the latest snapshot exposed to queries.

REFRESH database.table_name

Redshift Spectrum

Copy on Write Tables in Apache Hudi versions 0.5.2, 0.6.0, 0.7.0, 0.8.0, 0.9.0, 0.10.x and 0.11.x can be queried via Amazon Redshift Spectrum external tables. To be able to query Hudi versions 0.10.0 and above please try latest versions of Redshift.

note

Hudi tables are supported only when AWS Glue Data Catalog is used. It's not supported when you use an Apache Hive metastore as the external catalog.

Please refer to Redshift Spectrum Integration with Apache Hudi for more details.

Doris

Copy on Write Tables in Hudi version 0.10.0 can be queried via Doris external tables starting from Doris version 1.1. Please refer to Doris Hudi external table for more details on the setup.

note

The current default supported version of Hudi is 0.10.0 and has not been tested in other versions. More versions will be supported in the future.

StarRocks

Copy on Write tables in Apache Hudi 0.10.0 and above can be queried via StarRocks external tables from StarRocks version 2.2.0. Only snapshot queries are supported currently. In future releases Merge on Read tables will also be supported. Please refer to StarRocks Hudi external table for more details on the setup.

ClickHouse

ClickHouse is a column-oriented database for online analytical processing. It provides a read-only integration with Copy on Write Hudi tables. To query such Hudi tables, first we need to create a table in Clickhouse using Hudi table function.

CREATE TABLE hudi_table
ENGINE = Hudi(s3_base_path, [aws_access_key_id, aws_secret_access_key,])

Please refer Clickhouse docs for more details.

Support Matrix

Following tables show whether a given query is supported on specific query engine.

Copy-On-Write tables

Query EngineSnapshot QueriesIncremental Queries
HiveYY
Spark SQLYY
Flink SQLYN
PrestoDBYN
TrinoYN
AWS AthenaYN
BigQueryYN
ImpalaYN
Redshift SpectrumYN
DorisYN
StarRocksYN
ClickHouseYN

Merge-On-Read tables

Query EngineSnapshot QueriesIncremental QueriesRead Optimized Queries
HiveYYY
Spark SQLYYY
Spark DatasourceYYY
Flink SQLYYY
PrestoDBYNY
AWS AthenaYNY
Big QueryYNY
TrinoNNY
ImpalaNNY
Redshift SpectrumNNN
DorisNNN
StarRocksNNN
ClickHouseNNN